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Lorenzo Bevilaqua/ABC(NEW YORK) -- New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio said he believes everyone should have a right to health care.

"Let's face it, the emergency room is the family doctor now for millions and millions of Americans," de Blasio said in an interview on ABC's The View on Wednesday. "And tax dollars pay for it. It is expensive, it's backwards and it means people get really, really sick before they ever seek help."

That's why de Blasio said he unveiled a new health care program last week that would guarantee health care to all city residents, regardless of their ability to pay or immigration status.

The program will be called NYC Care, and will provide health care for an estimated 600,000 New Yorkers who currently don't have health insurance, including about 300,000 undocumented New Yorkers "who are our neighbors," de Blasio said.

"If they get sick, everyone gets sick. If the whole community isn't healthy, then we all suffer," de Blasio said. "That's the blunt reality of this country — undocumented immigrants are part of our economy."

Undocumented New Yorkers will receive a health care card and have access to a primary care doctor through the program, de Blasio said. Co-host Meghan McCain questioned how well NYC Care will work compared to flaws in federal-run health care programs, like the Veterans Administration's.

"We're closer to the ground and we're accountable to our own people," de Blasio said in response.

Eric Phillips, De Blasio's press secretary, tweeted that while the city already has a public option for health insurance in place, NYC Care will pay "for direct comprehensive care… for people who can’t afford it, or can't get comprehensive Medicaid."

Correct. NYC already has a public option. This is the city paying for direct comprehensive care (not just ERs) for people who can’t afford it, or can’t get comprehensive Medicaid - including 300,000 undocumented New Yorkers.

— Eric Phillips (@EricFPhillips) January 8, 2019

The program, which will begin this summer, is starting in the Bronx and will have a 24-hour hotline available. It's estimated to cost the city $100 million a year, but de Blasio said he thinks it will save the city money in the long run.

"Right now we're hemorrhaging money because we’re giving healthcare the backwards way," he said.

The mayor has also recently proposed legislation that would give two weeks of paid time off to all workers. If the City Council approves de Blasio's proposal, New York City would be the first U.S. city to require paid vacation.

De Blasio also touted the city's reduction in traffic fatalities last year to the lowest it's been since 1910, with the addition of miles of bike lanes throughout the city.

As announcements of presidential campaigns begin to ramp up, de Blasio has been eyed as a potential 2020 candidate.

When asked by co-host Sunny Hostin if he was running, de Blasio didn't rule out the possibility but said he's focused on his job.

"I'm mayor of New York City," de Blasio said. "That's what I'm focused on."

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anouchka/iStock(NEW YORK) -- New research suggests that people’s illusion of knowledge could be fueling the broader population’s opposition to genetically modified (GM) foods. “Extreme views often stem from people feeling they understand complex topics better than they do,” said Phil Fernbach, the lead author of the study, in a press release.

The study, titled “Extreme opponents of genetically modified foods know the least but think they know the most,” found that as a person’s opposition toward genetically modified (GM) foods became more extreme, their objective knowledge of the science and genetics dropped.

Fernbach called the results “perverse,” but said they were “consistent with previous research on the psychology of extremism.” GM foods are foods that have been genetically altered in a way that doesn’t occur naturally, according to the World Health Organization. By modifying these foods, they fulfill “some perceived advantage either to the producer or consumer… This is meant to translate into a product with a lower price, greater benefit (in terms of durability or nutritional value) or both.”

Some the most common foods to be genetically modified include soybeans (82 percent of global total crops), cotton (68 percent of global crops) and maize (30 percent of global crops). In the United States, more than 95 percent of food-producing animals consume GM feed.

WHO says each GM food and its safety should be assessed on a case-by-case basis, and that it’s not possible to make a blanket statement on all GM foods. It also said that it’s confident in the products that end up in your supermarket.

“GM foods currently available on the international market have passed safety assessments and are not likely to present risks for human health. In addition, no effects on human health have been shown as a result of the consumption of such foods by general population in the countries where they have been approved,” according to the WHO website.

Despite the consensus among the scientific community that GM foods are safe, they have been met with tremendous opposition in the public eye. Since the introduction of GM foods in the 1990s, discussions surrounding the topic have been riddled with skepticism, misconceptions and concern. According to a 2015 Pew Research Center survey, 37 percent of people said they believed eating GMOs was generally safe, while 57 percent said it was unsafe.

For the study, over 2,000 adults in Europe and the United States were surveyed on their opinions of GM foods by business and psychology researchers at the Leeds School of Business; the University of Colorado, Boulder; Washington University in St. Louis, the University of Toronto and the University of Pennsylvania. Over 90 percent of the survey respondents reported some level of opposition to GM foods.

Researchers then asked the participants how much they thought they knew about the subject and compared those results to an objective test so that they could determine how much they actually knew. The test asked them to say whether scientific statements, such as “all plants and animals have DNA,” were true or false. (The answer is true.) Their questions came from the National Science Foundation’s Science and Engineering Indicators Survey.

They found that many people did not know the answers, with those who thought they knew the most actually knowing the least. The complex nature of the subject lends itself great potential for misinformation, and prior attempts by the scientific community to bridge the gap in knowledge have largely been unsuccessful. The findings of this study shed light on a major barrier to achieving a consensus on the subject.

“Those with the strongest anti-consensus views are the most in need of education, but also the least likely to be receptive to learning; overconfidence about one’s knowledge is associated with decreased openness to new information,” the authors wrote. Because of the potential public health, agricultural and nutritional benefits GM foods offer, the scientific community is pushing to change people’s attitude toward GM food through education.

“Our findings suggest that changing people’s minds first requires them to appreciate what they don’t know,” said study co-author Nicholas Light, a Ph.D. candidate in marketing at Leeds School of Business, in the press release. “Without this first step, educational interventions might not work very well to bring people in line with the scientific consensus.”

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UPMC Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh(PITTSBURGH) -- On Bodie Blodgett's last day in the neonatal intensive care unit at UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, he was dressed in an adorable cap and gown for his graduation ceremony, celebrating his last day in the NICU.

Bodie was carried through the hallway of the hospital surrounded by his doctors, nurses and many others from the hospital staff as "Pomp and Circumstance" played.

"It was really special," Bodie's father, Todd Blodgett, told GMA. "We will look back on this day for many years to come."

The cleaning staff, different therapists, secretaries at the front desk and other hospital employees lined the hallways to join the celebration.

"We sometimes forget that the families who are at the bedside build relationships with not just the nurses, but also people around the hospital," Dr. Melissa Riley, associate medical director of the NICU at UPMC Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, told GMA.

"Everybody there is kind and there for you," Bodie's mother Nicole Blodgett shared with GMA. "It feels like I left another family behind there. You can never have enough love for your child, so to have this was incredible."

The hospital's NICU has been hosting graduation ceremonies for the past six months as a celebration for the families and hospital staff that helped the babies who have been in the unit the longest.

"You see the tiny little baby who has such incredible resistance, but it might not have started that way," Riley said. "If you take all of the medical assistance and technology, all of those things add up to give you the healthiest, strongest baby."

Nicole shared that she felt "relieved" that in 60 days, Bodie went from not being able to breathe on his own to being able to be taken home.

"[The ceremony] felt bittersweet," she said. "I'm leaving my support team that kept him alive, but I can't wait to be home and be a mom to him."

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nehopelon/iStock(NEW YORK) -- The foods we should be eating -- fruits, vegetables, lean protein, healthy fats -- are well-known, but many don't realize that the timing of when you eat affects how you feel and how healthy you are too.

The idea that timing matters when it comes to food is the focus of a new book, What to Eat When, by Dr. Michael Roizen, chief wellness officer at the Cleveland Clinic, and Dr. Michael Crupain, chief of the medical unit at The Dr. Oz Show.

"Your circadian rhythm changes your metabolism throughout the day and it gets your body ready to eat the right thing at the right time," Crupian told ABC News' Good Morning America. "The job of your circadian rhythm is to get your body to do the right thing at the right time, so you want to align what you eat with when you eat it."

"Then you're really hacking your metabolism get better health, sleep better, to have more energy and to even help you lose more weight," he added.

Crupain and Rozin shared with GMA what they learned while writing the book, from how long to wait to eat between meals to why they like to eat dinner for breakfast. Watch the video below to learn more:

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Motortion/iStock(NEW YORK) -- The current Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the second largest in history and the worst the country has ever seen.

At least 658 people have reported symptoms of hemorrhagic fever in the Central African nation's eastern provinces of North Kivu and Ituri, which share borders with Rwanda, Uganda and South Sudan. Among those cases, 609 have tested positive for Ebola virus disease, according to a daily bulletin from the country's health ministry on Tuesday night.

There have been 402 deaths thus far, including 353 people who died from confirmed cases of Ebola. The other deaths are from probable cases of Ebola.

"No other epidemic in the world has been as complex as the one we are currently experiencing," the country's health minister, Dr. Oly Ilunga Kalenga, said in a statement Nov. 9.

The rising number of cases in the ongoing epidemic has exceeded that of the 2000 outbreak in Uganda, making it second only to the 2014-2016 outbreak in multiple West African nations that infected more than 28,000 people, according to data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The development comes six weeks after the World Health Organization (WHO), the global health arm of the United Nations, concluded the current outbreak does not yet meet the criteria for an international public health emergency -- a proclamation that would have mobilized more resources and garnered global attention.

Here is what you need to know about the deadly virus:

What is Ebola?

The Ebola virus is described as a group of viruses that cause a deadly kind of hemorrhagic fever. The term "hemorrhagic fever" means it causes bleeding inside and outside the body.

The virus has a long incubation period of approximately eight to 21 days. Early symptoms include fever, muscle weakness, sore throat and headaches.

As the disease progresses, the virus can impair kidney and liver function and lead to external and internal bleeding. It's one of the most deadly viruses on Earth with a fatality rate that can reach between approximately 50 to 90 percent. There is no cure.

The WHO has received approval to administer an experimental Ebola vaccine, using a "ring vaccination" approach, around the epicenter of the current outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Some 37,000 people, including children as well as health and frontline workers, have been vaccinated in the outbreak zone since Aug. 8, according to the country's health ministry.

The vaccine, which was developed by American pharmaceutical company Merck, has proved effective against the country's previous outbreak in the western province of Equateur.

How is it transmitted?

The virus is transmitted through contact with blood or secretions from an infected person, either directly or through contaminated surfaces, needles or medical equipment. A patient is not contagious until they start showing signs of the disease.

Thankfully, the virus is not airborne, which means a person cannot get the disease simply by breathing the same air as an infected patient.

Where have people been infected?

In this current outbreak, people have been infected in North Kivu and Ituri, which are among the most populous provinces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and share borders with Rwanda, Uganda and South Sudan.

Those two provinces are awash with conflict and insecurity, particularly in the mineral-rich borderlands where militia activity has surged in the past year, all of which complicates the response to the outbreak. There is also misinformation and community mistrust of the medical response, partly due to the security situation, and some residents delay seeking care or avoid follow-up.

Ebola is endemic to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This is the 10th outbreak the country has seen since 1976, the year that scientists first identified the deadly virus in the small northern village Yambuku near the eponymous Ebola River.

This outbreak in the country's eastern region was announced on Aug. 1, just days after another outbreak in the western part of the country that killed 33 people (including 17 who had confirmed cases of Ebola) was declared over.

Where did the virus come from?

The dangerous virus gets its name from the Ebola River in northern Democratic Republic of the Congo, which was near the site of one of the first outbreaks. The virus was first reported in 1976 in two almost simultaneous outbreaks in areas that are now South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The outbreaks killed 151 and 280 people, respectively.

Certain bats living in tropical African forests are thought to be the natural hosts of the disease. The initial transmission of an outbreak usually results from a wild animal infecting a human, according to the WHO. Once the disease infects a person, it is easily transmissible between people in close contact.

An outbreak that began in the West African nation of Guinea in March 2014, and soon spread to neighboring Liberia and Sierra Leone, was the largest in history, infecting 28,652 people and causing 11,325 deaths. The outbreak, which the WHO deemed a public health emergency of international concern, was declared over in June 2016.

Who is at risk?

The virus is not airborne, which means those in close contact can be infected and are most at risk. A person sitting next to an infected person, even if they are contagious, is not extremely likely to be infected.

However, health workers and caregivers of the sick are particularly at risk because they work in close contact with infected patients during the final stages of the disease, when the virus can cause internal and external bleeding.

In the current outbreak alone, 55 health workers have been infected so far and at least 18 of them have died, according to the WHO.

There are also a high number of young children infected in the current outbreak. Children, who are at greater risk than adults of dying from Ebola, account for more than one-third of all the cases, while one in 10 Ebola patients is a child under the age of 5, according to the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund.

"We are deeply concerned by the growing number of children confirmed to have contracted Ebola," Marie-Pierre Poirier, UNICEF's regional director for West and Central Africa who returned this week from Beni, said in a Dec. 12 statement.

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Abbott(NEW YORK) -- One in 10 babies are born premature and Irie Felkner and her twin brother, Judah Felkner, were two of them.

Born 13 weeks prematurely, they were unable to breathe on their own after birth and had to be placed on ventilators. They were transferred to a neonatal intensive care unit at Nationwide Children’s in Columbus, Ohio. Judah was able to breathe on his own and come off the ventilator after a week. But Irie could not.

"She had a hole in [the artery coming off] her heart, a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)," the twins' mother, Crissa Felkner, said. "Doctors tried to take her off of the ventilator nine times but she was unable to sustain herself since the PDA was there. A machine was keeping her alive."

What sounds like a mother’s worst nightmare is actually a reality for many families. The U.S. is sixth on the list of countries with the most preterm births. India, China and Nigeria top the list.

Of the 15 million premature babies that are born each year, one million of them die of complications from being premature, according to the World Health Organization. One of these deadly complications is a PDA.

On Monday, the Food and Drug Administration approved the groundbreaking use of a minimally-invasive device to close the hole and treat PDA in premature babies.

This device, called the Amplatzer Piccolo Occluder, was used to treat the PDA in Irie. It is a small self-expanding mesh device (smaller than a pea) that is inserted through a tiny incision in the leg. It goes into the arteries of the body through a minimally-invasive catheter, enters the PDA and seals the hole.

“It is based on similar technology that Abbott has used for the past 20 years to perform minimally invasive procedures but that technology was previously only available for larger-sized babies,” said a spokesperson for Abbott Technologies, the company behind the research and manufacture of the device.

“We were given four options, one of them being the Piccolo Occluder, which is what we eventually went with,” Felkner explained. “The other options were waiting and seeing if the hole would close on its own, medications to try to close the hole (but those are not always effective and have side effects), or open heart surgery.”

The Piccolo Occluder was not FDA-approved at that time which did concern the Felkners. It was also the reason they waited a few days before deciding to go ahead with the procedure.

After about a week of waiting and watching, a repeat echocardiogram, or ultrasound, of her heart showed that it had enlarged and that her condition was getting worse. She was not a candidate for surgery since she still only weighed 2 pounds. Suddenly, the procedure with the Piccolo Occluder turned out to be Irie’s only option for survival.

“She wasn’t getting better so we had to take a leap of faith that this device would work,” Felkner said.

What is a PDA?

The ductus arteriosus (DA) is a normal small artery that all babies have before they’re born that connects the two bigger and main arteries of the body, the aorta and the pulmonary artery. Its purpose is to shunt blood away from the lungs of the fetus and to the aorta since at that stage the fetus is getting its oxygen supply through the umbilical cord, not the lungs.

Right after birth when babies are able to take their first breath, their lungs expand and the DA is no longer needed and closes on its own within the first five days of life. But in some babies, usually ones who are premature, the DA doesn’t close like it normally should and remains open.

This heart defect, called a PDA, can cause a decrease in the amount of oxygen in the blood that is delivered to the body's organs. Sometimes blood can flow in the reverse direction through this open defect, or “hole,” and into the lungs, causing fluid in the lungs and heart failure in babies, which is what happened to Irie.

From clinical trial to FDA approval

“Three days after she had this procedure done, she was off of the breathing machine. This minimally-invasive procedure saved my daughter’s life and did not even leave a single scar. She has no limitations now. She is a normal toddler and can do anything her brother can,” Felkner said.

Before the approval issued Monday, there was no minimally-invasive option to correct this heart defect urgently in babies the size of Irie. They would either have to grow bigger in order to get a minimally-invasive device or have an invasive open heart surgery that had a high risk of complications, including death itself.

Irie was treated as a part of the U.S. clinical trial called the ADO II AS, which enrolled 50 premature babies over the age of three days at eight centers across the U.S. Its results combined with that of a continued access protocol involving 150 more patients supported its safety and efficacy which led to the FDA approval.

As the rates of prematurity in the country continue to increase, the addition of this modern technology is a big step forward in treating some of the smallest -- and most vulnerable -- population of all.

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Janine Lamontagne/iStock(NEW YORK) -- Colin O'Brady hiked 932 miles across Antarctica and made history in the process as the first person to travel the continent from coast to coast solo.

The 33-year-old is also a three-time world record holder who has conquered everything from Everest to Kilimanjaro, Denali and the 50 highest points in the United States.

O'Brady powers up for his extreme adventures by sticking with a daily routine in which he takes time to meditate, journal and more.

Here are the five essential parts of O'Brady's wellness routine:

1. I wake up without checking my phone and get moving right away

When I wake up in the morning, I don’t check my phone, don’t check my email. First I put my running clothes on and get out the door to get my body moving.

So I’m a three-time world record holder. That’s what I’m most known for. I’ve set a few of the most prestigious mountaineering records.

I’ve been a professional athlete for so long that my body is really attuned to that. Since I travel a lot, I like to have a few workouts that I can really do from anywhere.

That’s usually squats, lunges, pushups, some body weight exercises to just kind of get my heart rate up, get my muscles working early in the morning. If I can get up, move my body, get a little sweat going, everything else throughout my day feels better.

2. I nourish my body with a healthy smoothie and supplements

There’s a couple of key components of the smoothie, like greens, some nice veggie protein powder and some berries.

My dad is an organic farmer in Hawaii, so I was raised around someone who really valued fresh, organic produce.

My supplements for the day: Magnesium, Omega 3s and a probiotic.

Getting that smoothie and supplements in my body, it really sets me up for a great day.

3. I meditate midday

When I feel that mid-afternoon lull, or maybe just a little bit over stimulated, I make sure to take 10 or 20 minutes in the afternoon to sit, meditate, calm my mind, regroup and I feel rejuvenated for the rest of the day.

I think sometimes people think of productivity as just getting as much done as possible, so the idea of sitting still and closing their eyes for 10 or 20 minutes seems like a waste of time, where I would argue it’s the complete opposite.

By taking 10 or 20 minutes to kind of stop and reset, I often find that I’m full of energy. I’m also full of creativity. A problem I [may have been] working on earlier that morning that I’m having some frustrations or challenges with, all of the sudden I have a clear idea of an answer, a solution or a pathway forward.

4. I journal in the evening before bed

I like to journal in the evenings. I’ve been doing that since I was a teenager, just to reflect on the day and unwind. It’s always nice after staring at screens all day to just grab an old fashioned pen and paper and write down my thoughts.

Sometimes it’s in bullet points but more often than not it’s just kind of a linear stream of consciousness.

5. I sleep with an eye mask and ear plugs

I sleep with an eye mask and ear plugs to make sure that I get the maximum amount of sleep to be revitalized and rejuvenated for the next day.

The reason I started sleeping with an eye mask and earplugs is it’s almost like my little security blanket.

I’m on the road quite a bit. Wherever I’m sleeping, whether that’s a hotel room, or a trail head before a hike, you know, I’ve got my eye mask on and my ear plugs in. It’s nice to have that recurring thing as part of my routine.

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Courtesy Tina Westmoreland(QUINLAN, Texas) -- They didn't hear the gunshot.

But when Tina Westmoreland went to water the plants in the front yard of her home in Quinlan, Texas, on Sunday morning, she found her daughter's diabetic alert dog laying there.

The 39-year-old mother of four had just made pancakes for the kids and was unsure how the 4-year-old golden retriever got outside. She immediately called the vet but didn't see the puddle of blood until her father lifted the dog into the car.

They rushed the dog, named Journey, to an animal hospital where he died from the gunshot wound. The family is devastated.

"It's been awful for us all," Westmoreland, a fourth-grade math teacher, told ABC News in an interview Tuesday.

Journey was trained to detect high or low levels of blood sugar in Westmoreland's 15-year-old daughter Hannah, who was diagnosed with diabetes in 2012.

"He was amazing," Westmoreland said of the dog. "He would poke her with his nose on her leg. He got in front of her, made sure she stopped and listened to him."

Journey had been with the family for the past three years and went everywhere with Hannah: to school, church and even camp.

"She is struggling, but hanging in there," Westmoreland told ABC News. "She has an amazing support system."

Westmoreland said she reported the incident to the Hunt County Sheriff's Office, and then a game warden contacted her Monday night to tell her he was investigating.

The sheriff's office did not respond to ABC News' requests for comment Tuesday.

A spokesperson for the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department confirmed that a Hunt County game warden is assisting with the investigation.

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gpflman/iStock(NEW YORK) -- Being thankful for what you don’t have might be just as important as being thankful for what you do have.

Home organization guru Marie Kondo has sparked an international phenomenon with her KonMari method of tidying up. Her process is based on figuring out which possessions “spark joy” in you, and getting rid of the rest.

Kondo is the star of a new Netflix series, The Life Changing Magic of Tidying Up, in which she travels across the U.S. to teach American families how to get organized. She previously published a book by the same name in 2014.

Spoiler alert: getting organized does not just mean cleaning, sorting, and putting your things away. It is also about deciding what you need and love.

One in 11 Americans have so many possessions that they pay for storage space outside their home, according to the Self Storage Association. Recent scientific research backs up the KonMari method, and shows that having too many things in your home may not only make it difficult to find your keys, but significantly impact how you feel.

Increased stress

In 2009, researchers at UCLA found that mothers who described their homes as “cluttered” had a stress hormone profile indicative of chronic stress. These moms also tended to have a more depressed mood throughout the day, were more tired in the evenings and had a difficult transition from work to home.

Decreased focus and productivity

Princeton researchers published an article in the Journal of Neuroscience in 2011 that found in a cluttered visual environment, multiple objects compete for your attention, leading to poor focus. Clutter is distracting, and a person’s ability to be productive suffers.

Unhealthier eating

In a 2016 joint Australian-U.S. study, college students were twice as likely to reach for sugar-rich foods when they were stressed in a messy kitchen. Researchers found that the combination of feeling vulnerable and being left in a chaotic environment led to more unhealthy eating habits.

Decluttering is easy…but difficult too

Clutter accumulates for many reasons. A study published in The Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders in 2015 about our motives for collecting objects suggests that people have strong emotional attachments to their belongings. Those belongings can serve as a source of comfort, an extension of self and sentimental reminders of life events. People are also concerned about waste, and fear that they will lose or forget things if they are discarded.

Interestingly, a 2017 study published in The Journal of Marketing showed that people are more willing to part with their possessions if they were able to keep its memory by photographing it. A box of old toys is easier to part with if there is a memento.

Decluttering -- a trend centuries in the making

Despite recent “declutter” trends, the act of purging one’s possessions can be found throughout history. The idea of “spring cleaning” has been practiced for centuries around the world, sometimes in preparation for a new year, as in China and Iran, and often linked to religious practice such as Clean Week prior to Lent in Catholicism or Passover in Judaism.

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Edith Brancho-Sanchez/ABC News(NEW YORK) -- It started in sixth grade.

Sara Martinez said she had no reason to be sad, and yet she was.

In seventh grade, she cut herself for the first time, finding her own blood frightening. She eventually tried to kill herself seven times before her 18th birthday.

"I just wanted the pain to end ... self-harm only helped me in that moment," Martinez said in an interview with ABC News. "Afterwards, I would see the scars and that wouldn't make me happy, and I would self-harm again."

Martinez is part of a startling statistic: 1 out of every 10 Latinas has attempted suicide in the past year, 2 out of 10 have made a suicide plan and half of all Latina teens said they've felt hopeless, according to the 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to people ages 10 to 24.

One-third of Hispanics in the U.S. are younger than 18, and another 14.6 million are between 18 and 33, according to Pew Research Center analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data. As the Hispanic population in this country has continued to grow, the rates of depression, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts among Latina teens have remained above those of Latino male youths, and white males and females.

Within the larger Hispanic population, Latina teens and young adults in the U.S. find themselves at the center of a perfect storm of hardships, generational and cultural gaps, stigma and a lack of knowledge when it comes to mental health disorders -- all worsened by anti-immigrant rhetoric.

Martinez is one of those immigrants. She is 18 and came to the U.S. from Nicaragua at age 8. She doesn't remember much about life there. Her mother, Amada Espinoza, said she brought her daughter to the U.S. hoping to spare her the poverty, violence and oppression that she herself endured.

Daily hardships

Espinoza now works two jobs: one as a community educator on a variety of topics at Nuestra Casa, an organization in East Palo Alto, California, and a second preparing food at a restaurant in Redwood City -- the same restaurant where her daughter now spends many hours between college classes.

"One has to have two jobs to be able to pay for the house, the car and the expenses ... housing here is very expensive," said Espinoza.

Dr. Fernando Mendoza, a professor of pediatrics at Stanford University, has cared for many immigrant families who, like Martinez and Mendoza's, face numerous daily challenges even without mental health obstacles. In addition to working more than one job, Mendoza explains, higher education is still frequently out of reach and often at least one family member is undocumented.

"If you're growing up as an adolescent in that environment, part of the issue [when it comes to understanding depression] is: What is your future? What is going to happen to you?" he said.

Immigrant rhetoric

In addition to the daily hardships, the Trump administration's immigration policies have cast yet another shadow on the prospects of Hispanic teens as a whole in American society, according to Alicia Diorio. The child and adolescent therapist in New York City said the current climate has affected the well-being of her patients.

"[The anti-immigrant rhetoric] absolutely creates fear, it creates chronic stress and anxiety, and all the symptoms become exacerbated," Diorio said.

"Every day we think about it," Espinoza said about her family's immigration status. "We are going through the immigration process but with all these new policies we don't know if it will be approved ... and we can't make any future plans because we don't know what's coming."

Although the 2018 CDC data on exactly how much the current political climate is affecting Latina teens won't be released until later this year, an October 2018 Pew Center research poll offers some clues. In it, half of Latinos reported having serious concerns over their place in American society under Trump, and a majority said they are worried that they, a family member or a close friend could be deported.

Generational gaps and stigma

Then there are old problems. Diorio said the cultural differences between parents and their teens in the Latino families she treats are evident during therapy sessions.

"There's just a lot of ideas that these teens have grown up with that are very different from what their families believe," Diorio said. "The desire for independence and fitting in with peers is often at odds with traditional family roles, which can be difficult for Latina teens in particular to navigate."

These teens must also overcome the stigma that is still associated with mental health conditions.

"With Latinos, I think it's much harder for us to be understood because, I guess, in a sense, we do tend not to show those feelings. We are called weak," said Martinez.

Martinez's mother remembers the way people who suffer from a mental health condition are treated in parts of Latin America and by many in the Hispanic community in the U.S.

"They're labeled as crazy," she said.

Even when the teens want to open up, a lack of education about mental health conditions means many do not have the vocabulary to express their concerns, leading them to deal with their symptoms on their own as best they can for as long as they can, explained Diorio.

"And that's when you see self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts ... we are not catching it early enough and they're dealing with it for so long it's just building and building and building," she added.

"I had a lot of complicated feelings I didn't know how to deal with," Martinez said.

The road to recovery

For Martinez, the road to recovery involved three long hospitalizations, many trips to the emergency room, a lot of support from her family and years of therapy.

Martinez has also found a way to move forward by helping other teens who also struggle with depression.

"They would talk to me about their experience and in a way, I felt like it was my experience, too, so in a way I was sharing my experience," she said.

But although Martinez -- and many like her -- have found ways to move forward, Diorio and Mendoza think there needs to be earlier interventions.

"I think we need to talk about it more," Diorio said. "We need to break down the stigma of mental health and allow not only the teens but everyone to talk about it."

Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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thekopmylife/iStock(NEW YORK) -- IV treatments that promise to do everything from boost energy to combat stress are making a big splash already in 2019, topping the wellness trends lists for the new year.

No longer just a luxury afforded to celebrities and VIPs, IV treatments are now offered in cities like Kansas City, Missouri, and Sarasota, Florida, and in homes and offices.

Maria Gracia Munoz, 34, started getting IV treatments nearly five years ago after daily 5:30 a.m. CrossFit workouts left her ready to crash and burn by the end of the week.

“I saw it was good for chronic fatigue and I thought, ‘Why not,’ so I started doing a regimen of once a week,” she said. “I believe in it.”

Munoz, of Weston, Florida, is a holistic nutrition health coach who works in a medical center that offers IV treatments.

She now gets an IV drip twice a month and says she sees it as a boost, but not a replacement for her daily supplements and good health habits.

A few states away, in Kansas City, Missouri, clients at Revive & Rally IV Therapy include everyone from active people looking to get more from their workouts to chefs who work long shifts, travelers suffering from jet lag and people trying to ward off a cold or the flu.

"Most of our business is health-conscious people and people with mild to moderate illnesses who are not bad enough to go to the ER but still need hydration," said Justin Ranes, M.D., the clinic's medical director. "A misnomer is you hear about IV drips marketed in places like Vegas as a hangover cure. That has not been our business much at all."

Ranes opened the clinic last year with a group of registered nurses he previously worked with in an intensive care unit. He sees Revive & Rally IV Therapy as providing a cost-effective service to the Kansas City community.

"The cost of going to ER for an IV can be over $1,000, and we can do that for one-tenth of the cost," he said. "People are looking for another way to get things done where they don’t have to go through insurance or pay astronomical bills for something that is pretty basic."

IV drips at Revive & Rally IV Therapy range in price from $75 for a bag of fluids to upwards of $200 for a more customized mixture of vitamins and minerals. The IVs are administered by registered nurses, according to Ranes.

Risks of IV therapy

Along with the possible benefits of IV therapy, like improved energy, come risks, experts say.

Any injection with a needle is considered invasive and carries the small but existing risk of localized bruising and bleeding, regardless of whether it’s administered by a doctor or an RN, according to Dr. Naomi Kaplan, a resident physician in physical medicine and rehabilitation and a member of the ABC News Medical Unit.

A needle prick also carries the risk of introducing an infection into the blood stream, which can be life threatening, according to Kaplan. Repeated IVs in the same vein could also potentially cause sclerosis, a hardening of the blood vessel, and there is a risk of inflammation of the vein that the IV is in.

Consumers should also be aware that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not monitor the supplements in IV therapy. Companies are using their own standards of safety and quality, which may make them hard to compare and may be variable.

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in September charged a marketer and seller of IV therapy products with "making a range of deceptive and unsupported health claims about their ability to treat serious diseases such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, and congestive heart failure," the FTC said in a news release at the time.

“This enforcement action should send a clear message to the burgeoning iV therapy industry and sellers of all healthcare products,” Joe Simons, FTC chairman, said in a statement in September. “Health claims must be supported by competent and reliable scientific evidence.”

How does IV therapy work?

The power of IV therapy is that it delivers the products, whether hydration fluids or vitamins, straight to your veins, according to Dr. Frank Lipman, a pioneer in the fields of integrative and functional medicine, who has been administering IV therapy to his clients for the past 20 years.

“It is an easy way to get nutrients right into [the] system quickly without having to be absorbed through the digestive system,” he said. “I used it and I have been using it for the last 20 years very specifically for people who are tired, run down or getting sick, and it works really well.”

IV vitamin therapy may include combinations of vitamin C, B12, magnesium, calcium or glutathione, a master antioxidant, and many other options in between.

The IVs typically take anywhere for 15 to 30 minutes to administer and patients can pick up in their daily lives immediately after, according to Lipman.

Lipman, who is based in New York City and treats a large celebrity clientele, said he endorses IV therapy as an effective therapeutic tool for specific ailments, but he does not endorse the trend it has become, especially as a quick fix or a hangover cure.

"People need to understand that it's another way to stay healthy but you need to take responsibility for your own health," he said. "You can't just rely on someone shooting you up with vitamins to stay healthy. That's missing the point."

Lipman added, "And now anyone can do it and they can get the cheapest ingredients and I don't think that's a good idea either."

Lipman, author of How to Be Well: The Six Keys to a Happy and Healthy Life, sees IV therapy as helpful because it provides such a boost of energy for many people that it motivates them to get healthier on their own.

"People realize how much better they can feel and I think that's important," he said. "When they have a subjective sensation of vitality and wellness, it does encourage them to go in that direction."

For people who want to try IV therapy on their own, it is preferable to have it done in a physician's office, but not essential, according to Lipman.

An IV can be a way to "push the restart button," according to Lipman, but just because IV therapy is now widely available, does not mean that it is a must-do for everyone.

"From where I'm coming from, this is another entry point into wellness and how to be well," said Lipman. "Is this going to encourage you to move your body more, to think about what you put into your body, to think about where your mind goes and how to control that? Those are more important aspects of wellness and how to be well than IVs."

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Stefanie Keenan/Getty Images for AERIN(NEW YORK) -- Actress Selma Blair opened up in a candid post to her more than 800,000 Instagram followers about the often overlooked realities and struggles of living with multiple sclerosis, writing, "I choke with the pain of what I have lost and what I dare hope for."

"There is a truth with neurogedenerative brain disease. It is uncomfortable. It is a stadium of uncontrollable anxiety at times. Going out, being sociable holds a heavy price," she captioned her post, which showed her lying in bed holding a teddy bear she said once belonged to her sister. "My brain is on fire. I am freezing."

"I do my best," she wrote, responding to people who often ask her how she does it. "But I choke with the pain of what I have lost and what I dare hope for."

She added that it is "challenging" just to "walk around," but that her "smiles are genuine."

The Legally Blonde actress publicly revealed her MS diagnosis back in October, and has been openly posting about her health struggles and successes on social media.

MS is a disease of the brain and spinal cord (or central nervous system), according to The Mayo Clinic. Currently, there is no cure for the disease, but there are treatment options that can help modify the course of the disease and manage symptoms, according to the clinic's website.

The neurodegenerative disorder can cause problems with speech, motor functions and also vision, according to ABC News' chief medical correspondent Dr. Jennifer Ashton.

The cause of the disease is unknown, but many people with MS experience a waxing and waning course of ups and downs and highs and lows that can vary vastly between different people, Ashton added. The key is managing MS, as is it is a chronic condition.

One of the biggest difficulties people dealing with MS may face is that we often have a problem dealing with things we can't see, and as MS is a brain condition, you often cannot outwardly tell if someone is suffering from it, according to Ashton.

Support groups and awareness can really help with this, she added, as well as seeking out mental health treatment with counselors or therapists, as MS can often carry with it an emotional toll.

Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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BackyardProduction/iStock(NEW YORK) -- For the first time in history, an American is more likely to die from an accidental opioid overdose than they are from a motor vehicle crash, according to an analysis from the National Safety Council.

The U.S. opioid crisis has come to the forefront of the country's consciousness since a rapid increase in fatalities in 2010, but eclipsing the number of highway crashes marks a critical point in the country's struggle with heroin, synthetic-opioid and prescription pill addiction.

The odds of dying accidentally from an opioid overdose have risen to one in 96, according to the watchdog group. The odds of dying in a motor vehicle crash are one in 103.

"“We’ve made significant strides in overall longevity in the United States, but we are dying from things typically called accidents at rates we haven’t seen in half a century,” said Ken Kolosh, manager of statistics at the National Safety Council. “We cannot be complacent about 466 lives lost every day."

NSC analysis also shows that falls – the third leading cause of preventable death behind drug overdose and motor vehicle crashes – are more likely to kill someone than ever before. The lifetime odds of dying from an accidental fall are one in 114 – a change from one in 119 just a year ago.

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ABC News(NEW YORK) -- Julia Dodds has had trouble trying to fit exercise into her schedule.

"I’ve had fitness trainers, I’ve taken classes, I’ve had nutritionists and I never really saw any results, so it has definitely taken a toll on me," Dodds, a 25-year-old New York City-based senior talent acquisition associate at a tech company, said. "That has given me this side where I don’t really feel like fitting it into my schedule."

So ABC News paired her with Holly Rilinger, the creator of LIFTED, a method that combines meditation and intentional movement.

The program

Rilinger, also a Nike master trainer and Flywheel master instructor, started her 30 days with Dodds by telling her, "We're in this together."

She and Dodds developed a four-part plan for success.

1. Train together twice per week: Dodds and Rilinger's sessions lasted one hour. They focused on resistance training and tailored the workouts to Dodds' needs each sesion.

2. Schedule workouts like a work commitment: Dodds made commitments each week to the times and types of workout she would do and put the workouts in her calendar as if they were appointments she could not cancel.

3. Be accountable with food: Dodds logged her food intake on an app and also texted photographs of her food to Rilinger.

4. Meditate daily: Rilinger called this the key to success. She and Dodds meditated for 10 minutes at either the beginning or the end of their sessions together. Meditating at the start of a workout allowed Dodds to clear her head from work and prepare to train, while meditating after a workout allowed her to reflect on her accomplishments.

"It's only 10 minutes," said Rilinger, who offers her LIFTED sessions remotely so people around the world can train with her. "It's super easy."

What happened after 30 days

Dodds said at the end of the 30 days she not only felt like a different person, but emerged with a different mindset too.

"I used to look for every excuse in the book not to have to work out that day and now I look for every reason to [work out]," she said. "I’m so happy and proud of myself, which is weird. I’ve never really felt that proud of myself."

Dodds added, "I feel strong and empowered and like I can do anything."

Four months after her time with Rilinger, Dodds said she sees now that she used her busy lifestyle as an excuse to not exercise.

"I hope that it inspires other people to know that you can do anything you put your mind to," she said. "Now I know that I can do it and I have this positive lifestyle because of it."

Rilinger took away from training Dodds that the issue of finding time to workout is a "really, really hard thing for a lot of people."

"What I learned from Julia is the struggle is real with work," she said. "She’s taught me to have a lot of compassion for people when they say, 'I’m really just too tired to workout in my daily life.'"

Now here's an at-home workout for you

Rilinger demonstrated 10 exercises that can be done at home, at any time and without any equipment.

Combine them for a longer workout, or do them individually whenever you can.

1. Squat to overhead rotation: Lower down to a squat, then rotate through your spine and drive your arms to the ceiling, come back to center, squat to center and rotate on the opposite side.

2. Curtsy lunge to side kick: Drop one foot behind the other knee, a curtsy lunge, and then kick up to the side.

3. Lunge with an upper body rotation: Drop back into a reverse lung, rotate your upper body over the front knee, rotate back to the starting position and repeat on the opposite side.

4. Squat jack: Go down into a squat, dropping hand at the same time, jump feet together and repeat, alternating lowering arms. Modify by stepping in and out of a squat instead of jump.

5. Walking plank: Start in a high plank position, with hands directly under shoulders, lower arms one at a time to the elbow and then push back up to hands. Aim to keep hips square to the ground, with no rotation. Modify by placing knees on the ground.

6. V-up: Lay on your back, with legs and arms extended. Simultaneously lift upper body and legs together, crunching your body in, and aim to reach as close to your feet as possible.

7. Bear crawl: Start on all fours. Lift your knees off the ground. Move opposite hand and opposite foot to walk forward, do the same to walk backwards. Modify by holding the movement stationery.

8. Dead bug: Lay on the ground on your back. Lift legs to 90 degrees and press against one knee with both hands. Press lower back into the ground and extend opposite leg. Repeat on the other side.

9. High plank kick-through (break dance move): Set up in high plank. Kick one foot through the opposite side as you rotate and open up your body. Return foot and repeat with the other foot.

10. Glute bridge: Lay on your back, with your feet close to your body and toes in the air, heels planted down. Drive hips into the air and squeeze glutes. Arms should be extended to the side, palms facing up.

Finish the workout with meditation. Rilinger recommends starting with five minutes per day.

Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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Courtesy Laura McGill(NEW YORK) -- Laura McGill wants to get fit so she can keep up with her 1-year-old son, Charlie.

"Since I’ve had my baby, I feel like I have no core anymore and my son is almost 25 pounds right now," McGill, 33, said. "I want to kind of get stronger so I can lift him up."

So ABC News paired her with Heidi Kristoffer, the creator of CrossFlowX and a mother of three.

The program

Kristoffer focused on making sure the workouts worked with McGill's schedule and would allow her to put herself first.

"You have to make you a priority," she told McGill. "You’ll feel so much better that you’ll be a better mom and you’ll be better at your job because you are more secure in your foundation because you are healthier, physically and mentally."

1. Daily exercise: To make sure McGill's workouts worked for her, Kristoffer asked her what she could handle and started with a daily, approximately 10-minute workout that focused on fast repetitions combined with static hold poses.

2. At-home workouts: She gave McGill exercises to do on her own at home and McGill took online classes of CrossFlowX, the workout Kristoffer created that combines fast-paced yoga flows with high intensity cardio intervals and Kundalini kriyas, fast and repetitive or static poses paired with yoga breathing techniques.

3. Increasing intensity: Kristoffer added a few minutes onto McGill's daily workouts each week.

"The biggest challenge was just finding time every single day to work out," McGill said. "Especially when I wouldn’t get a workout in in the morning and then I’d have a full day at work, I’d come home, I would have to breastfeed my son, put him to bed and then the last thing I wanted to do was hold a plank."

She continued, "But I pushed through it. The more I did it, the more it became part of my routine."

What happened after 30 days

McGill started the 30-day program able to hold a plank for one minute.

By the end of her time with Kristoffer, she more than doubled her time and held a plank for two minutes and 15 seconds.

"I know in my heart that I’ve made a lot of progress and I feel stronger," McGill said, adding that her advice for other moms is to be patient with themselves and start small, even if it's 10 minutes per day.

Kristoffer noticed how McGill prioritized herself and her fitness throughout the 30 days.

"She is a full-time mom, she has a full-time job. She does it all and she still managed to put herself first, so I feel like you really can, anyone really can, put yourself first," she said.

Now here's an at-home workout for you

Kristoffer shared moves to do at home to help you feel "super strong, super capable on your mat and off."

"I start off every CrossFlowX class with an ab series because when your core is engaged, the rest of your body is safe," she said.

1. Superhero plank series: Come to a high plank pose. Line up your plank so your wrists are directly underneath your shoulders, your feet are hip distance apart, belly pulled in.

Extend your right arm and then your left arm as far forward as possible. Then take your right hand back to plank and your left hand back to plank.

Tap your right knee to the outside of your right shoulder and then your left knee to the outside of your left shoulder.

Lower your right forearm to the ground and your left forearm to the ground. Tap your right knee to the outside of your right shoulder and then your left knee to he outside of your left shoulder.

Exhale your right hip to the ground, return to center, then exhale your left hip to the ground. Repeat twice.

Lengthen the right arm, then the left arm, to return to high plank, and repeat the entire sequence.

2. Shoulder twist: Soften your knees with your feet hip distance apart. Take your fingertips to the inside of your shoulders. Twist your shoulders side to side. Continue for at least one minute.

3. Squat variation: Begin in a wide yoga squat. Keep all four corners of your feet completely connected to the ground as you lower your body down. With palms pressed together in front of you, inhale as you raise your body and exhale as you return down. Continue for at least one minute.

4. Mountain climber combination: Begin in high plank pose and run in place (mountain climbers) for one minute. Put your knees down and slide one knee off the mat into frog pose. Cross arms over each other and relax. Switch arms after 30 seconds for one minute total.

Copyright © 2019, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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